A Theory of Philosophical Fallacies by Leonard Nelson (auth.)

By Leonard Nelson (auth.)

Presented as a Vorlesung within the German philosophical culture, this ebook offers the main specific account of Nelson’s approach to argument research, celebrated by way of many luminaries akin to Karl Popper. It used to be written in 1921 towards the relativistic, subjectivistic and nihilistic traits of Nelson’s time. The publication includes an exposition of a style that may be a extra improvement of Kant’s transcendental dialectics, by means of an software to the severe research of arguments by way of many recognized thinkers, together with Bentham, Mill, Poincaré, Leibniz, Hegel, Einstein, Bergson, Rickert, Simmel, Brentano, Stammler, Jellinek, Dingler, and Meinong. The publication offers a basic concept of philosophical argumentation as noticeable from the point of view of the common fallacies dedicated via anyone arguing philosophically, even if expert philosophers or philosophical laypeople. even if the character of philosophy and philosophical argumentation is among the so much recurrent items of mirrored image for philosophers, this ebook represents the 1st try out at a normal conception of philosophical fallacy. in response to Nelson, it's within the form of fake dilemmas that blunders in reasoning consistently emerge, and fake dilemmas are continuously the results of an identical mechanism--the unwitting alternative of 1 thought for another.

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If we were to judge only in accordance with consistency, then one system would be just as good as another, either to keep the principle and sacrifice the particular truth or to keep the latter and sacrifice the former. Both solutions are equally consistent. The demand for consistency remains ambiguous because both systems satisfy it equally well. Nevertheless, the two systems contradict each other. e. the principle of the exclusion of contradiction. Choosing the true system means evaluating the principles themselves—as opposed to simply showing that the system is consistent.

In 9 vols. eds. Paul Bernays, Willy Eichler, Arnold Gysin, Gustav Heckmann, Grete Henry-Hermann, Fritz von Hippel, Stephan Körner, Werner Kroebel, and Gerhard Weisser. Hamburg: Felix Meiner. Ostwald, Wilhelm. 1902. Vorlesungen über Naturphilosophie [Lectures on natural philosophy]. Leipzig: Veit & Co. Spengler, O. 1918. Der Untergang des Abendlandes: Umrisse einer Morphologie der Geschichte, vol. 1: Gestalt und Wirklichkeit. Munich: Beck [English translation: The Decline of the West: Form and Actuality, New York, Knopf, 1926].

The essential tension. Chicago: University Press. Nelson, Leonard. 1917. Kritik der praktischen Vernunft [Critique of practical reason]. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht [Reprinted in Nelson (1971–1977), vol. IV]. Nelson, Leonard. 1921. Spuk—Einweihung in das Geheimnis der Wahrsagerkunst Oswald Spenglers, und sonnenklarer Beweis der Unwiderleglichkeit seiner Weissagungen, nebst Beiträgen zur Physiognomik des Zeitgeistes: Eine Pfingstgabe für alle Adepte des metaphysischen Schauens [Phantoms—Initiation to the secrets of Oswald Spengler’s art of prophecy, plus some contributions to the physiognomy of the spirit of the times: A pentecostal gift for all fans of metaphysical intuition].

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