By Zeev Alfassi
This well timed ebook covers suggested measurements in addition to not on time activation measurements utilized in chemical research of the weather. It describes many of the chances of activation: neutrons, charged ions, and photons. additionally mentioned are the benefits and downsides of every activation approach. those volumes are very important for these in geology, archaeology, biology, analytical chemistry, radioanalytical and nuclear chemistry, the semiconductor undefined, and others.
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Additional info for Activation Analysis, Volume II
Guinn and Miller9' used an oscillator/multiscalar circuit to measure and store the dead time of the analyzing system repeatedly during the very short counting period. Then the dead-time data are least squares fitted by a computer to the function and then the integral in Equation 26 can be calculated analytically using these values of a, P, r, and 8. 98found an exponential function to fit best the experimental data of the system dead time Equation 33 is the same as Wiemik and Amiel's Equation 28 although k in Equation 33 is a fitting parameter where A in Equation 28 is the decay constant of the only fast-decay nuclide.
Thus T can be found by plotting In (I&) vs. N or as W y t t e n b a ~ hsuggested ~~ by first approximation plotting U I , vs. N. HeWshowed another way to correct the coincidence losses by using the real time (clock time), T, and the live time of the measurement, t, where 6 is another constant of the detection system. 7/acan be measured from plotting UI, vs. T/t and subsequently be used to correct other spectra. '02 This correction and similar others103are the easiest one to be used in cyclic activation where the count rate varies considerably with time.
The cycle period T is given by The number of counts for the first cycle is given by the equation Volume 11 25 where a is the saturation activity and the F, are the time factors. where E is the efficiency of the detector, I is the intensity of the radiation of interest, and A is the decay constant of the isotope of interest (A = ln2/tI,,). In the second counting period, there is the same number of counts due to the second irradiation plus what was left from the first irradiation where F, = e-",.