By Ran Xinquan
Concise and readable, Water Injection For Low Permeability Reservoirs offers operators with the right kind workflow platforms and engineering options for designing, making plans and enforcing water injection platforms that would increase restoration elements. while utilized in low permeability or ultra-low permeability reservoirs, water injection is likely one of the low-cost equipment for making sure greatest creation charges. This ebook presents either theoretical research and sensible instances for designing and comparing water injection platforms and figuring out key creation variables interested in making precise predictions for oil and water generating premiums, water injection charges, and restoration efficiency.
This publication in actual fact explains the features of ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear circulate theories. those themes are then utilized to layout and implementation. software situations of 4 oilfields are incorporated to assist strengthen options whereas illustrating the correct workflow for making sure waterflooding functionality research and optimization. The publication can be utilized as a reference for box technical body of workers, or as technical aid for the administration personnel.
- Discusses features of low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear circulate theories
- Provides certain examinations of points corresponding to rigidity sensitivity, fracturing timing, and nonlinear movement theory
- Describes layout and implementation of complex waterflooding systems
- Includes genuine case reports from 4 oilfields
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Extra info for Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice
16%. 8%, thus showing a better development efficiency. Breakthroughs in the Facies of the River-Mouth Bar Not only are sandbodies consisting of river-mouth bars usually widely distributed, stable, and thick, they also have good physical properties and allow balanced waterflooding. As a result, water injection in these sandbodies can produce a prompt response in the producing wells, with the water-cut rising slowly. 07%. 2 Factors That Influence Well Responses Waterflood effects in ultralow-permeability reservoirs are different from those in high-permeability ones.
These pores, either interconnected or disconnected, are all filled with one or several fluids. The stress in the porous media is complicated by their unique material structures, which usually bear both external and internal stresses. Variations of the stress states are usually the immediate cause of the deformation of the porous media in petroleum reservoirs. 1 Features of Stress Sensitivity The permeability of rocks reflects their overall conductivity and determines the fluid flow conditions. In the process of oil and gas field development, the pressure within reservoir rocks keeps changing.
678 MPa/m (Table 1-8). Under such a high-pressure gradient, it is hard to build up an efficient displacing pressure system with an injectorproducer distance of 300 m in the conventional method, but advanced injection can improve the efficiency of both injection and production. High Saturation Pressure of Oil in Place but Small Difference between Reservoir and Saturation Pressures With the small difference between the reservoir and saturation pressures, the former can easily drop below the latter.