By Keith W. Waldron
This booklet offers a complete and systematic reference at the complex biomass restoration and conversion methods utilized in biorefineries. the 1st a part of the e-book reports advancements in biorefining methods, via a evaluate of alternative kinds of biorefinery platform. the second one 1/2 the ebook discusses the wide variety of further worth items from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives.
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Extra resources for Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain exploitation
Inherently safer chemistry for accident prevention Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions and fires. Green chemistry, biorefineries and second generation strategies 5 • the use and production of non-hazardous raw materials and products, • safer and more energy efficient processes, and • the use of renewable feedstocks. Efficiency is the key, and green chemistry has continued developing around the principles, which guide both academia and industry in their pursuit of more sustainable processes.
Biorefineries falling into that category can also be called ‘product-driven biorefineries’. They generate two or more bio‑based products and the residue is used to produce energy (either fuel, power and/or heat). Examples of phase III biorefineries include whole crop biorefineries which make use of several agricultural by-products originating from the same crop. 3 Most common thermochemical and biochemical processes Mechanical processes Biochemical processes Chemical processes Thermochemical processes Pressing Milling (size reduction processes) Pelletization Distillation Extraction Anaerobic digestion Aerobic and anaerobic fermentation Enzymatic conversion Hydrolysis (basic or acidic) Transesterification and esterification Hydrogenation Oxidation Methanization Steam reforming Water-gas shift Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis Water elecrolysis Pulping Pyrolysis Gasification Combustion Steam explosion Hydrothermal upgrading Supercritical ones targeting the production of chemicals and fuels.
Biomass with a high acid, alkali metal and water content can be difficult to use in conventional thermal treatments: the high water content can render pyrolysis or gasification processes very difficult and the acidity of the feedstock can limit the applications of the pyrolysis oil obtained, for example. Microwave technology has been studied for the pyrolysis of straw. , 2009). The properties of the oil obtained could also be modified by using additives during the heating phase, showing how microwave technology is versatile and can offer an alternative to conventional thermal processes.