By Michel Soustelle
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Extra info for An introduction to chemical kinetics
1. Basic premise of kinetics It can easily be thought that, in order to react with each other, molecules have to be very close to each other at a given time. This means they must positioned so that they exert mutual influences that can provoke changes. R1] This reaction involves three molecules as reactants. It is clear that if this reaction occurred in a single step, it would imply that the three molecules (reagents) meet (or are very close to each other) at the same time to give rise to a reaction that is followed by the simultaneous transfer of two electrons.
We can also find point defects in crystals, which are highly mobile species as often shown by electrical conductivity, and therefore likely to move to ensure the transport of matter and charges. 1. Excited atoms (or molecules) If we consider a set of atoms or molecules of the same nature, it is known that they store energy that is distributed into various forms: – translation; – rotation; – vibration; – electronic. At rest and at a certain temperature, these forms present an energy that has a Gaussian shape with a mean value and a standard deviation that increases with temperature.
This activation leads to electrochemistry; – activation through ultrasound: in liquid or solid phase, the ultrasounds are likely to activate molecules. This activation leads to sonometry; – activation through adsorption: the adsorption of molecules coming from a gas or liquid at the surface of a solid provokes activations that result in changes in the molecule. An example is the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen, which cuts the molecule into two adsorbed atoms. This activation leads to heterogeneous catalysis.