ASM Handbook - Properties and Selection Irons Steels and by ASM International

By ASM International

A finished advisor to compositions, homes, functionality, and choice of forged irons, carbon and low-alloy steels, instrument steels, stainless steels, and superalloys. comprises 1,328 illustrations (photographs, charts, and graphs). greater than 500 tables supply huge facts for alloy designations, compositions, and mechanical and actual homes.

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Example text

Unlike type D graphite, type E graphite can be associated with a pearlitic matrix and thus can produce a casting whose wear properties are as good as those of a casting containing only type A graphite in a pearlitic matrix. There are, of course, many applications in which flake type has no significance as long as the mechanical property requirements are met. Solidification of Gray Iron. In a hypereutectic gray iron, solidification begins with the precipitation of kish graphite in the melt. Kish grows as large, straight, undistorted flakes or as very thick, lumpy flakes that tend to rise to the surface of the melt because of their low relative density.

Gray iron is probably at least as strong as this for loading cycles resulting in negative mean stress, because it is much stronger in static compression than in static tension. It is therefore a natural assumption that the parallel behavior shown in Fig. 14 is conservative. If, prior to design, the real stress cycle can be predicted with confidence and enough data are available for a reliable S-N diagram for the gray iron proposed, the casting might be dimensioned to obtain a minimum safety factor of two based on fatigue strength.

1 These values can be influenced by the combination of various elements and by the presence of rare earths in the composition. Furthermore, some of these elements can be deliberately added during liquid processing in order to increase nodule count. Alloying elements have in principle the same influence on structure and properties as for gray iron. Because a better graphite morphology allows more efficient use of the mechanical properties of the matrix, alloying is more common in ductile iron than in gray iron.

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