Biocultural Diversity in Europe by Mauro Agnoletti, Francesca Emanueli

By Mauro Agnoletti, Francesca Emanueli

The ebook collects a variety of the papers provided on the assembly held within the context of the Joint Programme at the hyperlinks among organic and Cultural range (JP-BiCuD). spotting the inextricable hyperlink among organic and cultural variety, the United countries academic clinical and Cultural association (UNESCO) and the Secretariat of the conference on organic variety (SCBD) joined forces, and in 2010 introduced the Joint Programme at the hyperlinks among organic and Cultural variety (JP-BiCuD). the 1st assembly for the implementation of the JP-BiCuD was once held in Florence (Italy) in April 2014 and produced the UNESCO-sCBD Florence assertion, which highlights the idea that of biocultural variety. the ecu rural territory is predominantly a biocultural, multi-functional panorama, delivering a very important and potent house for integration of organic and cultural variety, suggesting the necessity to revise a few of the present recommendations for the evaluate and administration of biodiversity.

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A complex “co-evolution” has shaped the interactions between natural ecosystems and the constantly evolving human land use practices (Di Castri et al. 1981), resulting in a mosaic of traditional rural landscapes which conserve many of the biological and cultural characteristics of those from the past. The first significant impact made by humans on forests and other natural ecosystems in the Mediterranean took place before the Neolithic revolution (Terral 2000), when permanent settlements were established.

However, the pressure on these landscapes and their rapid transformation into more modern forms call out for a better knowledge of the more complex forms of traditional land use and relative landscapes. In this context, an identification and clarification of the role of such mixed and complex forms of agro-forestry systems and landscapes, named “giardino Mediterraneo” (“Mediterranean garden”) is necessary. This term is often applied to and associated with numerous different agricultural and agro-forestry systems as well as to numerous different kinds of rural landscapes, due to the complex and intricate historical process that has led to their identification and cultural evolution over time.

This fragmented landscape is both temporally and spatially heterogeneous because of its environmental, climatic and topographic variability and its interactions with various historic events and cultures (Naveh and Liebermann 1994; Cowling et al. 1996; Pinto-Correia and Vos 2004; Blondel 2006). These interwoven semi-natural and cultivated landscapes have been the cradle of man’s relationship with nature for thousands of years and are real biodiversity hotspots due to their exceptional number of endemic and cultivated species.

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